The Golden Age of Islam is a term found in orientalist literature that describes the historical era in which the Islamic civilization was scientifically and culturally advanced. It is a common belief among orientalists that one of the main factors, if not the single most important reason, for the decline of science in the Islamic world after its golden age is al-Ghazali's attack on philosophers in his famous book (The Incoherence of Philosophers). Al-Ghazali's critics contend that he challenged philosophers' ability to provide rational justifications for metaphysical arguments. And this challenge, in a way, stopped critical thinking in the Islamic world.

However, this argument must be put into question because, contrary to the classical narrative, scientific advancements in the Islamic world did not stop or even slow down after Ghazali time period.

This project aims to challenge the classical narrative and present a new narrative through the critical historiography work of George Saliba for a better understanding of Islamic scientific history.